Intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction is currently the only evidence-based treatment strategy for glaucoma. However, IOP control in some individuals is challenging. Despite optimal treatment, a significant proportion of individuals will progress, with loss of visual field, loss of driving vision and impaired quality of life. A new modality that could augment current treatment and reduce the rate of neurodegeneration to preserve vision throughout life would be a major breakthrough. A vast number of studies have reported effective neuroprotection in animal models of glaucoma; however, translation to the clinic remains a major hurdle. Herein, we explore the therapeutic advancements in non-IOP-dependent neuroprotection research based upon potential pathogenic mechanisms and propose strategies to improve the clinical translation of neuroprotective research in glaucoma.